In today’s lesson we watched a documentary on Robert Rauschenberg’s life and artworks. It was very interesting, the documentary showed that Raushenburg collaged anything together in artworks called ‘combines’. An example of this is Paint Cans, 1954.
As you can see in the image, Rauschenberg collaged anything together. This collage features old paint cans and paint on top. It is interesting to see a collage that isn’t just paper on paper.
More of Rauschenberg’s combines below.
Odalisk, 1955/ 1958
Louisa Chambers creates artwork that focuses on how a folded shape can be transfigured from a 3 dimensional structure into a flat 2 dimensional painting. Each form is squashed, folded, opened, twisted and then recorded from observation.
The outcomes look like a collage as there are lots of colours and shapes.
Dexter Dagwood’s work depict ‘imagined and constructed interiors or landscapes’. They are usually devoid figures that act as memorials or descriptions of historical people, places or moments.
“They range in subject from major political events like The Death of David Kelly 2008 or The Birth of the UN 2003, to imagined places that are marked by some traumatic history or event, or which have simply become lodged in our collective cultural unconscious; these include Sharon Tate’s House 1998, Neverland 1999, Greenham Common 2008 and Camp David 1999.”
Dalwood’s paintings start out as small collages made from cutting magazine pages and art history.
Jonas Wood creates collages painted on the side of buildings, this painting is called Still Life with Two Owls (MOCA) and was created in 2016. It is still an ongoing piece of work and is at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Los Angeles. I’m drawn to the scale and the colours in this artwork. I would love to be involved in creating a building artwork sometime.
Today we learnt about narrative used in collage. A few artists who were mentioned are Max Ernst, Martha Rosler and Shinro Ohtake.
Max Ernst created narratives using collaged images, I think this could be interesting to use in my narrative collages as it actually looks like its printed.
Max Ernst narrative collages
Martha Rosler creates a series of collaged scenes which suggests a narrative.
These collages are from the series, House Beautiful: Bringing the War Home (c.1967- 72). I especially like the collage Cleaning the Drapes as I think the images gel together very well. The collage series was created during the Vietnam war and so the collages are of Vietnamese citizens and images of affluent Americans from the pages of House Beautiful.
This scrapbook style collage is interesting as it looks quite random, but it is a scrapbook so has narrative behind it. I am also drawn to the bright colours, it reminds me of my daily collages.
Joe Orton and Kenneth Halliwell were a couple and lived in a room collaged completely from history books.
In 1958, the couple went to the local library and collaged over book covers and pages. They then placed them back in the library. The collaged over 100 books. The pair were eventually found out and were put in jail.
Ray Johnson was an artist living in New York. He emerged in the DaDa movement and shadowed Pop Art. Johnson set up the NYC of Correspondence. This was a network of artists who would post work all over the world and add on to the collages, photocopy the collages, add instructions onto the collages for the receiver to follow out, etc.
Max Ernst was a German painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and poet. A prolific artist, Ernst was a primary pioneer of the Dada movement and Surrealism.
Max Ernst developed a technique called, Frottage, from drawings made in 1925. Frottage simply means, ‘rubbing’ in French. Ernst was inspired by an old wooden floor, the grains of the planks had become more prominent from the many years of scrubbing. From 1925 onwards, Ernst captured the graining floor planks by putting a sheet of paper on the floor and then rubbing over the top with a soft pencil. The results of the rubbings created weird creatures. Ernst published a collection of these drawings in 1926 titled Histoire Naturelle (natural history).
Collage emerged in the 1900s in Paris by poor artists. Collage literally means ‘to stick’.
In 1834, Victorians were able to print photographs which led to the photographs being stuck together to create artwork.
The first collage artist known is Pablo Picasso with his artwork, The Dream, 1932.
Pablo Picasso was on of the first collage artists. He was poor at the time and tried out a new controversial technique. Picasso created a painting that sparked different reactions. It has many different angles, The Accordionist, 1911. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were good friends and often their work looked very similar.
Pablo Picasso, The Accordionist, 1911
Georges Braque, Le Portugais, 1911
My favourite collage artist is Kurt Schwitters. Kurt Schwitters was a German artist who created collages and lived in Nazi Germany. As he was a Jew, he had to escape and so travelled to many places, whilst still making collages. These collages interest me as they contain train tickets, packaging from different countries, newspaper cut outs etc, which gives the viewer an insight to where Schwitters had travelled to.
More collage artists.
Hannah Hoch- used paper print outs to create collage
Joan Miro- dropped items to create collage, then painted them
I have been influenced by Maria Bartuszová’s, Untitled, 1973. My work explores the nude body, both male and female, sexualities and relationships. I have been looking at maternal bonds between mother and daughter as Bartuszová’s piece has maternal associations. The artwork suggests both male and female body parts. The mash-up of both male and female body parts influenced the idea that the work is relating to transgender people. I have begun researching this idea and have created artwork that looks at male and female body parts. I enjoy making artwork that exposes subjects that aren’t common, and that makes people think. I have been attending life drawing sessions to use as reference for my artwork. I usually work with acrylic paint and canvas, however, I have been using bed sheets to paint on, as I feel they have erotic associations, like Bartuszová’s artwork. The bed sheets also have associations with maternal bonds, like the artwork by Maria Bartuszová. While exploring this piece of work, I am hoping to create some screen prints to widen my skills and materials. My project, in my opinion, has only just scratched the surface of ideas and artworks, which makes me excited to continue with it throughout the year.
I realised the importance of the studio when I visited Paul Granjon’s studio to understand the type of work he creates and what happens at his studio.
I try to make use of my studio at university to create my work, but also to bounce off other people’s work and presence to inspire me.
The Key Concept lecture on the studio by Sean Edwards allowed an insight into different artists’ studios, such as Francis Bacon’s studio, and Claude Monet’s studio. The lecture looked at the difference in European and American studios, European studios have high ceilings with huge windows. American studios are like factories.
This lecture introduced Daniel Buran to me, and his idea of what a studio should be.
Buran says the studio should be “1) a place where work originates. 2) A private place, an ivory tower. 3) A stationary place where portable objects are produced”. Another artist mentioned in the studio key concept was Marcel Duchamp. Duchamp has the idea of a studio being like a laboratory. I understand this idea of the studio being like a laboratory and being a place where portable objects are produced. I will try to apply this while I am creating work in my studio.